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OUGD501: Context of Practice 2 (Lecture) - Identity

Lecture Summary
  • To introduce historical conceptions of identity
  • To introduce Foucault’s discourse methodology
  • Yo place and critiquer contemporary practice within these frameworks, and to consider their validity
  • To consider postmodern theories of identity as fluid and constructed.
Theories of Identity
  • Essentialism (transitional Approach)
  • Physiognomy
  • Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) - Founder of positivist criminology - the notion that criminal tendencies are inherited.
  • Physiognomy legitimising Racism.
  • Anglo-teutonic,
  • Irish Iberian
  • Negro
  • Hieronymous Bosch (1450-1516) Christ carrying the cross, llid on panel, c. 1515. 
  • Chris Ofili, Holy Virgin Mary, 1996. - suggesting that mary was something other than the blond hair blue eyes stereotypical beauty.
  • Historical Phrases of Identity 
  • Douglass Kellner - Media culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics between the modern and the post modern, 1992.
Pre-Modern Identity
  • ‘secure identities’
  • Farm-worker,
  • soldier
  • factor worker,
  • housewife
  • gentleman,
  • husband-wife (family)
  • landed gentry
  • the state,
  • industrial capitalism
  • patriarchy
  • patriarchy
  • marriage church
Modern Identity 19th and earth 20th Centuries
  • Charles Baudelarie - The painter of Modern Life (1863)
  • Baudelarie introduced the concept of the flaneur (gentlemen stroller)
  • Veblen - conspicuous consumption of valuable goods is a means of reputability to the gentlemen of leisure
  • Gustave Callibeotte (1848-94)
  • Le Pont de l’Europe 1876
  • Not having to work is an indication of your class
  • Simmel - Trickle down theory, Emulation, Distinction, the mask of fashion
  • Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94
  • Paris Street, Rainy Day, 1877.
  • Georg Simmel
  • The feeling os isolation is rarely as decisive and intense when one actually finds oneself physically alone, as when one is a stranger without relations, among many physically chose personal at a party on the train or in the traffic of a large city. 
  • Simmel suggests that; because of the speed and meltability of modernity -.-
Post-Modern Identity
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Identity is constructed out of the discourse culturally available to us. 
  • What is discourse?
  • 'A set of recurring statements the deinf e particular cultural object, eg. madness, ciminallity, sexuality, and provide concepts and terms through which such an object can be studied and discussed' Cavalaari (2001)
  • Possible Discourses
  • Cass
  • Nationality
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Humphrey Spender/Mass Observation, Worktown project, 1937
  • To know where you fit in, you need to know what the other classes are. 
  • Set up by Spender, a social anthropologist, to observe Britain living. 
  • Documented in Bolton - mass observation.
  • Martin Parr, New Brighton, Merseyside, from The Last Resort, 1983-86
  • Condescending way of viewing lower classes. 
  • Perpetuationing a stereotype of a different class. 
  • Martin Parr, Ascot, 2003,
  • Society reminds one of a particularly shrewd cunning and pokerfaced paler i the game of life, cheating if given a chance flouting rules whenever possible. 
  • Martin Parr, Sedlscombe from Think of England 2000-2003
  • Cultural appropriation
  • Las Vegas - is American a real identity? Fake, replicas, taken from other nationalities.
  • Disney World, all the con ties are much closer together.
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Icons being depicted as in a different light, the holy virgin Mary being black, for example. 
  • (Chris Ofili, Captain shit and the Legend of the Black stars, 1994)
  • Chris Ofili No Woman, No Crime 1988
  • Gillian Wearing, from the signs that say what you want them to say and not signs that say what someone else wants you to say, 1992-3
  • Representation of black people, models being used in provocative nature. 
Gender and Sexuality
  • The fashion industry is not the work of women, but the work of men.
  • gigantic unconscious hoax.
  • Flapper, 1925
  • Androgyny 1920’s style, from Punch Magazine.
  • Masquerade and the mask of femininity
  • Cindy Sherman, Untitled film stills, 1977-80.
  • Sam Taylor Wood, Portrait (Fuck, Suck, Spank, Wank, 1993
  • Sarah Lucas, Au Naturel, 1994
  • Tracey Emin, Everyone I have eve slept with 1963-95, 1995
  • Wonderbar - women shouldn’t be stereotyped to the kitchen
  • Gillian Wearing, Lynne, 1993-6
Post Modern Theory
  • Identity is constructed through a social experience
  • Erving Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (1959)
  • Zygmint Bauman - Identity (2004), Liquid Modernity (2000), Liquid Love (2003)
  • Yes, indeed, identity is revealed to us only as something to be invented.
  • Rene Decartes (1596-1650) - I think therefore I am
  • I shop therefore I am - Barbara Krunger

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